Prostatitis is the swelling and inflammation of the prostate, which presents with various symptoms and has various causes.
The symptom of prostatitis can be tricky and not all are definitively diagnosable.
One of the common symptoms is perineal pain—pain in the perineum. The perineum is located behind the scrotum and before the rectum. Another common symptom is pain during urination or ejaculation. Other symptoms include urgency such as the sudden urge to urinate. Finally, the so-called urinary retention—the inability to empty the bladder or empty completely.
1. Acute bacterial prostatitis
2. Chronic bacterial prostatitis
3. Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome
4. Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis
Your healthcare provider will assess your symptoms and perform a physical exam.
More invasive tests for prostatitis may include:
1. Acute Bacterial Prostatitis Cause, Symptoms, and Treatment
Cause: The cause of the first kind of prostatitis is a mainly acute bacterial infection, often diagnosed by the increased presence of bacteria and white blood cells in the urine, semen, and prostatic secretion.
Please note that the above symptoms can also occur in patients who don’t experience prostatitis, but instead have active urethritis, urinary or genital cancer, urinary tract disease, urethral strictures, or neurogenic bladder. Therefore it is important to consult your doctor and get a professional diagnosis.
Treatment: Normally healthcare providers or physicians use antibiotics to treat acute bacterial prostatitis. If the pain is unmanageable, your healthcare provider or physicians may prescribe pain medication.
In cases where the prostate has enlarged and obstructed the urethra, an intermittent catheter can be prescribed to help void the bladder. An intermittent catheter is a thin tube that is inserted into the obstructed urethra, creating a clear passage for urine to come out. The intermittent catheter is inserted every time one needs to urinate and is disposed of afterward.
2. Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis: Cause, Symptoms, and Treatment
Cause: The main cause of chronic bacterial prostatitis is the recurring bacterial infection of the prostate. It is diagnosed in the same way as acute bacterial prostatitis by the elevated presence of white blood cells and bacteria, but different from acute bacterial prostatitis, the infection does not respond immediately to antibiotics and needs further treatment.
Symptoms: Symptoms are the same as acute bacterial prostatitis but present recurrently and often less intensely.
Treatment: The treatment often includes several courses of antibiotics instead of one. In the case of the blocked urethra, a catheter can be prescribed to manage symptoms of urinary retention.
3. Chronic Nonbacterial Prostatitis
The third kind, chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (a.k.a. Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome), is diagnosed when patients exhibit the same symptoms as chronic bacterial prostatitis but no bacteria presence is detected in urine, semen, or prostate secretion.
This condition is subdivided into two types: inflammatory and noninflammatory.
Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis is the most common type of prostatitis but very little is understood about it. There is no specific cause and treatment for chronic nonbacterial prostatitis at this point.
4. Asymptomatic Inflammatory Prostatitis
Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis is when the prostate is inflamed but the patient feels no symptoms at all. Because of the lack of symptoms, this kind of prostatitis is often diagnosed during tests for infertility or elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level when a large amount of white blood cells is found in ejaculation.
This type of prostatitis does not cause complications and does not need treatment unless causing infertility in males who are planning for conceiving a child with their partner.
One major effect of prostatitis is urinary retention, which is the inability of urine to leave the body completely or partially. As the prostate becomes inflamed and enlarged, it obstructs the urethra, which travels through the middle of the prostate to connect the bladder and the penis. The obstruction of the urethra causes urinary retention, causing the urine cannot leave the body or have trouble being emptied completely.
What’s more, urinary retention can increase risks for getting a bladder infection, bladder damage, UTI, kidney infection, and kidney failure.
Doctors may prescribe catheters to manage urinary retention. Here is a comprehensive guide for how the choose the right catheter for you, covering important topics like size, tip, infection risks, types of lubrication, discretion, and portability.
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